Art & Literature
Up to the 19th Century, painting and sculpture in the Philippines was strongly influenced by the Roman Catholic Church. Secular themes and directions of abstract art were later seen in the painting.
Remarkable painters were Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo Resurrección whose work represented the era of romanticism and impressionism. Notable were also Fernando Amorsolo, known for his landscape paintings, Fabián de la Rosa, whose strength of his painting were portraits, as well as Carlos Francisco.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Philippine literature has been contained from oral folk stories, legends and sayings, which were available in the various languages. Under the Spanish the literature was primarily religiously influenced, while later, with an increasing orientation to the United States, short stories and dramas emerged.
Notable writers of the Philippines are the novelist and national heroes José Rizal, Francisco Balagtas or Francisco Baltazar, Jose Garcia Villa, Carlos P. Romulo, Claro Recto, Nick Joaquin and Pas Marques Benitez.